During the last 20 years, the demand for freshwater in the Middle East and North Africa has increased significantly—particularly because this is one of the world’s most arid regions. Larger seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plants have been built to meet the demand.
A multistage BB5 diffuser machine in oil transfer service in the Middle East had been in operation for many years without problems. After a routine maintenance strip down and rebuild, the pump experienced a high thrust bearing temperature of 105 C, which caused it to alarm and shut down. The temperature range had previously been 75 C to 85 C.
The Middle East and North Africa are likely to see an annual growth in power demand of 6 to 8 percent—roughly three times the world’s growth rate. Satisfying this surge in demand will require regional governments to leverage diverse power sources such as solar, oil, natural gas and coal. Governments have increased incentives for renewable energy sources within the region.
Life-cycle cost calculations for wastewater installations can produce huge savings over time for wastewater companies. The life-cycle costs summarize the total cost of a wastewater installation, and the pump system plays a major role. It is the key element to ensuring the installation’s long-term cost-effectiveness.
For more coverage of Ski Dubai, view our slideshow, "Fresh Snow at Ski Dubai."
A ski slope in the middle of a desert—it sounds a bit radical. However, modern technology has made skiing a possibility all over the world, no matter the geography, climate or time of year.
Ski Dubai, an indoor ski slope in one of the United Arab Emirates’ largest cities, offers gentle snowy slopes at any time of the year, regardless of the weather.
When discussing expansion joint selection, the conversation typically focuses on the quality, durability and capabilities of the expansion joint. However, the expansion joint’s role in the overall energy efficiency and optimization of the piping system is often overlooked.
All piping systems require some degree of flexibility. Inadequate flexibility can lead to a catastrophic system failure that could even be life-threatening, making flexibility an important consideration in expansion joint selection.
Centrifugal pumps often experience repeat failures. Maintenance and reliability professionals are charged with preventing them. This four-part series explains the reasons behind repeat pump failures and uses a real-world field example involving boiler feedwater (BFW) pumps.
Several years ago, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) began an initiative to control excessive nitrogen and phosphorus pollution entering the Gulf of Mexico through watersheds. Although phosphorus and nitrogen are nutrients needed for aquatic plant and algal growth, excess amounts can have damaging effects. Farming states were under pressure to restore their surface water quality.
Countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) have always been prominent food importers rather than producers. The punishing climate and topography have challenged efforts to expand the region’s food-processing indus-
try, especially in countries belonging to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). Now, after decades of steadily increasing activity, the MENA food market can expect to exceed 1 trillion U.S. dollars by 2030, according to the World Bank.
Part One of this series (Pumps & Systems, August 2014), discussed the new American National Standards Institute/Hydraulic Institute (ANSI/HI 9.8) design standard requirements. It also discussed how to calculate the length of a reducer (see Equation 1) and the angle of a reducer (see Figure 1).
Lr = 4 (DL – Ds) Equation 1
Lr = Length of the reducer
DL = Larger pipe diameter
Ds = Smaller pipe diameter
As the months pass, the evidence is becoming increasingly clear—North America is in the midst of a golden age of oil and natural gas production. Record levels of recovery in U.S. unconventional plays and Canadian oil-sands formations are driving vast production increases. According to the International Energy Agency, the U.S. surpassed Saudi Arabia and Russia this year as the world’s largest producer of crude oil and natural gas.
Power factor (PF) is an important component of an alternating current (AC) circuit, but understanding its actual effect can be difficult. Why is PF mysterious to many of us? It has to do with the way it is explained.
PF is often defined as the ratio of the real load power to the apparent power in the circuit. Real power is the power consumed by the circuit, and apparent power is the sum of the real power and reactive power. Reactive power is often called imaginary, phantom or borrowed power. Real power is measured in watts, and reactive power is measured in volt-amps.
Rural wastewater utilities rarely, if ever, consider upgrading to an automated control system. Obtaining funding approval in ever-tightening budgets has always been a hurdle, but the real barrier is the lack of information technology support. Many rural municipalities operate in a 21st-century world with 20th-century assets, with their aging water infrastructure dating back to the 1940s or earlier.
While Middle East oil & gas companies explore new fields onshore and off, mature fields in the Arabian Gulf are benefiting from advanced recovery methods that have extended their production life. Nowhere is this truer than at the world’s largest offshore oilfields, Safaniya, Upper Zakum and Manifa. Based on information from industry reports, these fields have long sated the world’s thirst for MENA oil as energy demands continue to grow exponentially. Efficient, high-performance pumps will be the key technology in propelling these fields into a new era of recovery.
In past “Pumping Prescriptions” columns this year, I have discussed the procedure of piping size selection when given the process flow requirement and how this affects the pump’s power consumption. In this column, two computer calculation tools will be detailed. The tools are the Energy Consumption Calculator and the Pump Performance Estimator. Both can be found at pump-magazine.com/pump_magazine/pump_magazine.htm.
The Jordan, Knauff & Company (JKC) Valve Stock Index was up 14.4 percent during the last 12 months, staying under the broader S&P 500 Index, which was up 22.1 percent. The JKC Pump Stock Index was up 24.1 percent during the same time.1
When facilities—whether paper mills, refineries, or chemical or waste treatment plants—decide to implement pump system improvements, the first question is always the same: Where to begin?
This month’s column looks at the pre-screening process, when plant management teams decide which system to tackle first. The pre-screening process quickly identifies which pump system has a high probability of improving plant operations, reducing total cost and increasing system uptime.
In a typical plant, pumps often are controlled by semiconductors such as microprocessors, power electronics and variable frequency drives (VFDs) to digitally link assets and provide better process control. By using “smart”
centrifugal pumps with VFD controls, plant operators can vary the pump and impeller speed, allowing the motor output to match the system requirement for improved system performance.
Last month’s column described the process of creating an energy cost balance sheet for a piping system (see Figure 1). The manufacturer’s curve was used to calculate the cost of operation for the centrifugal pump. This column explains how to perform the detailed cost calculation for other items in the system.
The waterfalls in the National September 11 Memorial & Museum cascade forever.
That is the designers’ vision for these 16 acres of hallowed ground, the place where the New York City skyline and the world changed in 2001. Visitors—mourners from around the globe—see the largest man-made waterfalls in the world rush as if to infinite depths from the footprints of the twin towers.
Q.What are “nonclog pumps,” and in what applications are they used?Figure 1. Dry pit pump – overhung flexibly coupled vertical end suction
A. “Nonclog pumps” are rotodynamic centrifugal pumps that are designed to ensure maximum freedom from clogging when handling liquids containing solids or stringy materials. These pumps are often used in wastewater services.
The Jordan, Knauff & Company (JKC) Valve Stock Index was up 9 percent during the last 12 months, staying under the broader S&P 500 Index, which was up 13.1 percent. The JKC Pump Stock Index was up 19.1 percent for the same time period.1
Paper production requires large amounts of power. The Smurfit Kappa plant in Piteå, Sweden, uses its own biomass boilers to meet part of its energy needs. The cleaning system in place for the high-performance steam generator includes a specialized motor management solution to ensure uninterrupted motor operation.
Minimizing pump downtime directly affects the bottom line. Sealless mag-drive and canned-motor pumps, commonplace in the petrochemical and power industries, enhance reliability and reduce emissions and leakage compared with more traditional “sealed” pumps. The choice between sealless and sealed pumps often involves savings in both time and money. Making the right choice can also affect the overall health and reliability of operations.
The Plant Manager is responsible for general supervision of all phases of plant operations including: production, quality control, maintenance, receiving, and shipping. Responsibilities also include recruiting, hiring and training personnel and facility/physical plant up-keep and capital improvements. In addition the Plant Manager will be responsible for annual budget planning and execution. They will work closely with the production team to increase productivity and profitability within the manufacturing operation.