Oil and natural gas producers have always had an economic rationale to capture or recover as much product as possible in the oilfield.
One of the critical parameters in compressor design and selection is the compression ratio, often denoted as r. The compression ratio is simply the ratio of the absolute stage discharge pressure to the absolute stage suction pressure.
When long-time pump users enter the compressor world, they must leave behind familiar flow terms, like GPM, GPH, BPH, etc. and embrace new terms, like SCFM, ICFM, CFM and ACFM, which define the flow of gases and vapors under pressure.
In the 1963 edition of the Ingersoll-Rand (IR) frame ratings guide, the piston loads were defined. This document stated that piston load is frequently referred to as "rod load," which is a misnomer as it implies that the piston rod is the only limit in the establishment of a compressor load rating. It defined the piston load as the nominal pressure at the cylinder flange times the area of the piston.
Computer simulations of pumps and compressors can now serve the same function as hardware testing. These simulations can be done in less time with less cost while providing engineering data of similar quality. Furthermore, computer modeling can be performed directly by the engineer doing the hardware design, thus providing a tight link between analysis and design optimization.
Reciprocating compressors are usually rated in terms of horsepower, speed and rod load. Horsepower and speed are easily understood; however, the term rod load is interpreted differently by various users, analysts, OEMs, etc.
As the need to increase efficiency and meet lower emissions requirements puts pressure on gas turbine operators, they look for innovative solutions that do not necessitate large capital costs or high risks to make improvements. Some of the more reliable enhancements are water injection for nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction, online and offline water wash programs to maintain compressor efficiency and fogging for power augmentation.
This article focuses on how leaks can negatively impact the system as a whole, and how leaks can affect the environment and the well-being of the personnel who work around them.
There are two primary classifications of industrial compressors: intermittent flow (positive displacement), including reciprocating and rotary types; and continuous flow, including centrifugal and axial flow types.
Overall vibration trending is excellent for monitoring rotating machinery health, but not generally effective for tracking reciprocating compressors. A new generation of Reciprocating Machinery Protector technology is very sensitive to compressor faults in their early development stages, yet less likely to give false trips. Here's how it works.
Seven considerations for selecting the proper heat transfer fluid.
Most high-speed centrifugal compressors rely on fluid film bearings-such as tilting pad journal (TPJ) bearings and equalized (Kingsbury style) thrust bearings-for rotor support and positioning. A compressor's rotor position must be maintained within a few thousandths of an inch to operate efficiently and reliably.
Some people say that compressors are simply pumps that pump gas. This may be true to some extent, but significant differences exist between them.
Propane refrigeration systems are often required in the natural gas processing industry to provide the required chilling in condensing heavy components for a rich gas. This study explains a simple correlation to estimate compressor power and condenser duty per refrigeration duty in three-stage propane refrigerant systems - important parameters to consider when designing any refrigeration system.
A look at the role that liquid ring vacuum pumps and compressors play in the ethanol and biodiesel production process.