Explore best practices for securing SCADA systems in remote sites. This article addresses threats and corresponding implementation measures with a focus on SCADA RTU installations and the processes they monitor and control.

Even though control technology has become an integral part of many pumping systems, over half of our readers have not expressed much interest in pump controls. I think I know why - today's controls are simply not as intuitively understandable as they once were. Who wants to read about the advantages of PID control without a basic understanding of P, I, and D itself?

Have you ever wondered why a motor manufacturer would state that many of their 60-Hz motors will operate on 50-Hz power as long as you reduce the nameplate voltage by 1/6?

Lindmore Irrigation District uses Ethernet radios to improve SCADA communications system and pumping efficiency.

Here is a primer on the proper locations for surge protection in water and wastewater facilities.

Soft starters and VFDs are useful for extending equipment life in HVAC applications.

Understanding technology capabilities and application requirements is important when selecting a wireless technology for an application. The reasons to choose wireless include reduced installation costs, installation and deployment flexibility and the ability to address new applications. Before selecting wireless, first ensure the bandwidth available with wireless meets the application requirements.

The Detroit Water and Sewerage Department (DWSD), a municipally owned utility, provides roughly four million residents in southeastern Michigan with an average of 710 million gallons of water per day.

As pump users, we often have to deal with fuzzy concepts, such as: What is low flow? When are vibration levels too high? When is suction specific speed value too high? When is a pump's energy level high?

The second part of this three-part series explores the types of protection applied to specific equipment installed at water and wastewater facilities and some typical criteria used to develop protective settings.

Vertically mounted pumps can resonate as a total structure in a "rocking" mode, as shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. This is one of the toughest unsolved vibration problems at several plants.

In my experience, there are three types of maintenance philosophy regarding vibration programs: No philosophy at all, utmost attention with zeal, attention to particularly problematic units

When the City of Delaware, Ohio, expanded its wastewater treatment plant, it looked to increase more than just capacity. It also wanted to increase its efficiency and automation capabilities to benefit the plant's operators and taxpayers.

A variable frequency drive (VFD) can be a valuable asset in reducing the life cycle costs in certain types of pumping applications. The traditional method of motor control in pumping applications is a low cost mechanical starter, which is essentially a large switch with a built-in motor protection device known as a thermal overload relay. A conscious decision to reduce upfront costs by using a mechanical starter may result in higher energy consumption, excessive component wear and poor power quality.

Sensors and automation passively participate in our everyday lives to improve comfort, add safety and reliability, and increase the efficiency of needed products and services.

Active Front End (AFE) drives use two power sections. An active rectifier is used to minimize the amount of harmonic distortion reflected to the power grid by drawing nearly sinusoidal current from the power grid. Standard 6-pulse rectifiers used in most drives create harmonics (e.g.5th, 7th, etc.) that can generate anywhere from 30 to 100 percent current distortion. The active rectifier used in the AFE drive creates cancelling harmonics that effectively eliminate those that would be created in a standard 6-pulse drive.

Under an Energy Conservation Performance Program, Miami-Dade County commissioned a study to evaluate potential capital improvement projects fully funded from the projected savings in energy consumption and/or operating and maintenance costs. Through this program, the cost of new equipment is financed through energy and/or other realized operational cost savings. The capital funding otherwise required to replace existing mechanical systems is avoided, and those funds can then become available for other County needs.

The installation of an AC drive with an advanced software tool has dramatically cut call-outs for blockages at an Irish county council pumping station.

In the power industry, clean water is crucial for a variety of tasks, including extending the service life of turbine seals and protecting spray nozzles and heat transfer equipment. Raw water drawn from lakes, rivers and reservoirs must first be strained to create acceptable clean water for use. The power industry and other industries must continuously strain tens of thousands of gallons of water per minute to remove dirt and debris that can wreak havoc on critical process systems and equipment.

If pump cavitation is not detected and quickly eliminated, significant damage can occur to the impeller and other internal components. Since cavitation (the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in the pumped fluid as it passes through the pump impeller) is often temporary or even induced by the process, timely knowledge of the condition is extremely important so operators can act to alleviate the problem and prevent damage.

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