The second part of this three-part series explores the types of protection applied to specific equipment installed at water and wastewater facilities and some typical criteria used to develop protective settings.

Vertically mounted pumps can resonate as a total structure in a "rocking" mode, as shown in Figures 1 and 2 below. This is one of the toughest unsolved vibration problems at several plants.

Introduced in June 2010, the VibXpert II (VXP II) has many different uses and functions. The primary use is to extend the lifespan of equipment within a plant or facility using vibration signatures. One of its many applications is detecting bearing faults, either early or pre-existing within the machinery. It can also detect cavitation within pumps.

Last month, we discussed thermal radiation and material properties and the thermal nature of materials. We also looked at the emissivity of real objects using a stainless steel block. This month, we will discuss other characteristics demonstrated by the steel block example.

Even when a redundant pumping system is in place, it can be advisable to monitor the condition of the operating units in critical applications where maintaining production depends on motor-pump reliability.

Interpretation of equipment clues can help diagnose problems before failure occurs

Active Front End (AFE) drives use two power sections. An active rectifier is used to minimize the amount of harmonic distortion reflected to the power grid by drawing nearly sinusoidal current from the power grid. Standard 6-pulse rectifiers used in most drives create harmonics (e.g.5th, 7th, etc.) that can generate anywhere from 30 to 100 percent current distortion. The active rectifier used in the AFE drive creates cancelling harmonics that effectively eliminate those that would be created in a standard 6-pulse drive.

The installation of an AC drive with an advanced software tool has dramatically cut call-outs for blockages at an Irish county council pumping station.

In the power industry, clean water is crucial for a variety of tasks, including extending the service life of turbine seals and protecting spray nozzles and heat transfer equipment. Raw water drawn from lakes, rivers and reservoirs must first be strained to create acceptable clean water for use. The power industry and other industries must continuously strain tens of thousands of gallons of water per minute to remove dirt and debris that can wreak havoc on critical process systems and equipment.

If pump cavitation is not detected and quickly eliminated, significant damage can occur to the impeller and other internal components. Since cavitation (the formation and collapse of vapor bubbles in the pumped fluid as it passes through the pump impeller) is often temporary or even induced by the process, timely knowledge of the condition is extremely important so operators can act to alleviate the problem and prevent damage.

Named after frontiersman Kit Carson, Carson City, Nev., is known for its fresh air, rugged natural surroundings and its proximity to the casinos of Reno and skiing in Lake Tahoe. Carson City, the capital of Nevada, has been a self-governing municipality since 1972. The Carson City Public Works Dept. manages all the water for Carson City and County. Its mission is to be completely self-sufficient-acquiring, using and reusing 100 percent of its own water.

A sewage lift pump that pumps millions of gallons per day simply can't go down. To prevent this from happening, this pair of electricians went about testing some new electrical systems for those pumps with a new insulation multimeter.

When measuring vibration, one of the most important factors in obtaining accurate information involves selecting the proper vibration transducer. Selecting the wrong vibration transducer can yield results that are misleading or, worse, mask a problem.

Released in January 2010, the SDT270 Ultrasonic Detector, in conjunction with its powerful database software, gives the earliest indication of bearing re-lubrication requirements, bearing failure, and pump cavitation.

Over the past 50 years, advances in technology have provided the primary thrust behind the success and evolution of variable-speed drive systems. Here are some considerations for the proper selection and set up of different types of systems, and what lies ahead in the future.

Back in the old days, level control had little or nothing to do with saving energy. In fact, it was often a necessary evil. Today, that is no longer true - the VFD offers the potential for power savings in lift station applications that range from a few hundred gallons per minute to those that have to move thousands of gallons each minute.

What Are Your Vibration Monitoring Goals?

Identifying goals before starting is key to designing a process tailored to specific needs. What are you hoping to accomplish by monitoring vibration? How would you like to acquire data? What are you going to do with the data? These important questions should be addressed before moving forward.

Under an Energy Conservation Performance Program, Miami-Dade County commissioned a study to evaluate potential capital improvement projects fully funded from the projected savings in energy consumption and/or operating and maintenance costs. Through this program, the cost of new equipment is financed through energy and/or other realized operational cost savings. The capital funding otherwise required to replace existing mechanical systems is avoided, and those funds can then become available for other County needs.

Joseph Gallo Farms in Atwater, Calif., uses captured methane gas from its 5,000 dairy cows to run up to 50 percent of the electricity for its cheese factory.

This municipal water system evaluated the cost of upgrading their existing SCADA software and decided it was time to consider replacements. After much research, it became clear that not only was it possible to get all the features they were missing; they could also do most of the configuration in-house.

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