A number of choices are available when connecting pumps, fans and other rotating equipment to an electric motor. There are numerous mechanical and fluid coupling designs and, in some cases, a belt drive option is available. Although a belt drive can be more forgiving, all mechanical couplings share the requirement for precise alignment. Since couplings provide a direct physical connection between the motor and the rotating machine, misalignment will create vibration and other stresses that can lead to premature coupling, seal and bearing failure. Misalignment can be due to poor alignment practices or suction and discharge piping stresses.
In the late 90s, the magnetic coupling provided another option. This device operates on a principle similar to that of the AC induction motor. In the induction motor an alternating current in the stator produces a rotating magnetic field. This rotating field induces an opposing field in the rotor, which causes mechanical rotation. In the case of the magnetic coupling, magnets implanted in a rotating aluminum disc induce opposing fields in a nearby conducting disc. These opposing fields also cause rotation. Figure 1 (image courtesy of MagnaDrive Corporation) is a side view of a typical magnetic coupling.
Figure 1 shows a magnetic disc in the center flanked by two joined, conducting discs with copper faces. The couplings that connect the two rotating assemblies to the motor and driven load are also shown. Between the outside discs and the magnetic disc is an air gap. The air gap causes some slip to occur, just as the rotor/stator air gap causes slip (about 3 percent) in an induction motor. Slip in the the magnetic coupling can range from 2 to 5 percent and depends on the coupling size, the air gap distance and the torque required by the driven load.
The air gap makes this coupling different from other mechanical couplings. Since there is no physical contact between the two rotating discs, angular alignment, axial alignment and thermal expansion are not nearly as critical as they are with a mechanical coupling. Depending on the peak torque transmitted, a magnetic coupling can tolerate from 0.75 to 2 deg of angular misalignment and up to 0.25 in of axial misalignment. Another advantage is a cushioned start, which reduces mechanical stress during motor starting. This occurs as a result of magnetic slippage between the discs during motor ramp up. These features can help to significantly reduce repair and routine maintenance costs.
In a magnetic coupling application, the air gap, magnet strength and conducting disc surface area determine the amount of torque that can be transmitted. The rare earth, permanent magnets that induce the magnetic fields are a mix of neodymium, iron and boron. They have high field strength, long half life and can operate up to 300 deg F. The conducting discs travel at motor speed and use air flow to dissipate the heat generated as a byproduct of induction.
When considering installation of a magnetic coupling on a new or existing pump application, three conditions must be considered. First, the coupling must be sized to handle the peak torque. Second, the additional slip introduced by the coupling will reduce head and flow, so the impeller must be sized to accommodate the lower pump rotational speed. Finally, on pumps with long, small diameter shafts, the greater overhung load on the shaft side of the bearing frame, due to the coupling, must be considered when evaluating critical speed.