Choosing the correct centrifugal pump for your application is critical for maximizing long-term performance. The wrong pump will not only operate inefficiently, but can fail prematurely because it is not ideally suited to the application’s conditions.
Identifying the best pump for your application starts with examining the pump curve, which indicates how a pump will perform against specific rates of pressure head and flow. The proper interpretation of this data is the only way to make informed decisions on the choice of pump, motor sizing, power consumption strategies and other factors. Before reading a pump curve, the following information must be gathered for a given system:
- the required rate of flow in gallons per minute (gpm)
- the appropriate pipe sizes and system components
- the system head in feet
After making these calculations, it is time to find a pump that will operate efficiently within the system parameters.
A pump curve denotes flow on the x-axis (horizontal) and head pressure on the y-axis (vertical). The curve begins at the point of zero flow, or shutoff head, and gradually descends until it reaches the pump runout point or maximum flow rate.
The pump’s operating “sweet spot,” or best efficiency point (BEP), is generally located near the middle of the curve. Pumps are the most efficient and have their highest life expectancy when they can run near their BEP, as determined by the manufacturer. Typically, the area on the curve between 70 and 120 percent of the BEP is known as the preferred operating region (POR) for the pump.
A second curve, called the system curve, is used in conjunction with the pump curve and can be overlaid on the same graph. The system curve represents the system head in your specific application at various flow rates and is calculated by determining the system’s static head and friction loss.
On a system curve, as the flow rate increases there is a corresponding rise in system head, or pressure required to make the liquid move. The energy used to overcome flow resistance is referred to as the head (or pressure) loss due to friction.
Overlaying the system curve on the pump curve indicates how the pump will perform given a specific flow rate and head pressure, depending on the position of the pump control valve and the impeller diameter. The point at which the pump curve and system curve intersect on the graph indicates the pump’s actual operating point in that particular system.
To illustrate, consider the following example and refer to the single speed curve displayed in Image 1:
- a flow of 9,000 gpm
- a head of 180 feet
Locate 9,000 gpm on the x-axis, and follow it up until it intersects with 180 feet of head on the y-axis. The intersection point would fall toward the middle of the curve and likely be within the POR, making the pump a good choice for this example application.
It would be important to confirm that it does in fact fall within the POR by checking the manufacturer’s guidelines.
The same graph can represent how the pump’s performance will change if the impeller diameter is reduced or enlarged. The diameter is expressed in inches neighboring its respective curve. A change in impeller diameter does not affect the system curve, which only shifts if there is a change in system head, such as a closed valve. The intersection points are where the pump will perform at each diameter.
Note that it is permissible to change the impeller diameter, as well as system conditions, so long as the pump performance still falls within the POR. There is a broader range of the pump curve identified as the allowed operating region (AOR), in which it may be permitted and beneficial to operate the pump. It normally falls between the minimum continuous stable flow (MCSF) line and the runout line. If pump performance falls outside that zone, look for another pump.
Other Pump Curve Elements
In addition to plotting the pump and system curves, a pump curve graph provides other elements important for choosing the correct product for your application.
Efficiency curve: The pump efficiency curve represents a pump’s efficiency across its entire operating range. Efficiency is expressed in percentages on the right of the pump curve graph. The BEP is represented by the efficiency curve’s peak, with efficiency declining as the curve arcs away, either right or left, from the BEP. Knowing the efficiency percentage will also help calculate horsepower required for an application.
ISO efficiency lines: International Organization for Standardization (ISO) lines are concentrically elliptical curves indicating equal efficiency on a pump curve graph. They are used as another means of representing how efficiency levels change along a pump curve as it moves away from the BEP or if the impeller diameter is reduced.
Power curve: The power curve represents the load the pump imposes on the driver at a given point on the pump curve and helps with proper motor sizing. It is represented as a separate curve graph and gradually rises toward its peak load, which is typically close to the BEP with most rotodynamic pump types. Afterward, it declines as it approaches the runout point.