Common Pumping Mistakes
by Jim Elsey

Over my last 24 articles for Pumps & Systems (see them here), I’ve offered advice solely on centrifugal pumps. This month I’m shaking things up to address progressive cavity pumps (PC), which fit into the rotating positive displacement pump family. Admittedly, I do not have as much experience in this area as I do with centrifugal pumps, but over the last 13 years I have seen the same mistakes made repeatedly, resulting in expensive damages.

The basic working principle of operation is a rotor (usually made of solid metal) shaped as a single helix rotating inside a stator (usually made of an elastomer) that has a double helix cavity. The concept seems complex, but once you visualize how it works the simplicity and the beauty of the design is clear.

A cutaway of a progressive cavity pumpA cutaway of a progressive cavity pump (Courtesy of the author)

The pump is covered under International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 15136.1 for petroleum and drilled down-hole applications. Specification American Petroleum Institution 676 also covers the pump in petroleum applications, otherwise the PC pump is covered under American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 3.1- 3.5 for rotary positive displacement (PD) pumps. This type of pump is classified as a rotary PD pump by the Hydraulic Institute.

The PC pump is often maligned as the pump of last resort. However, the PC pump is an excellent choice as the fluid viscosity increases beyond the efficient range of centrifugal pumps.

It is also very useful in applications where the fluid is abrasive and/or shear sensitive. In agricultural applications the pump is used to move fruits or berries with little to no harmful effects to the product.

Selection Process

The more you know about the fluid, the better you can match pump size, operating speed and material for a cost effective and reliable application.

As a rule of thumb, the PC pump is an efficient selection when the pressure required is higher than the flow rate (PSI > GPM). It is prudent to address the major concerns in the selection process: abrasion, temperature and viscosity.

Wear is proportional to speed, more so in a PC pump than a centrifugal pump. As the viscosity of the fluid increases, you should reduce the speed of the pump. As an example, with a fluid viscosity of 1000 centipoise (cP) the speed should be somewhere around 150 rpm, but at a reduced viscosity of 100 cP the speed could be raised to 700 rpm.

The higher the abrasive properties of the fluid the better to select a larger pump and run it slower than a smaller and faster pump. Yes, the larger pump will initially be more expensive, but the choice will pay off quickly with an excellent return on investment. The smaller and faster pump will become a “money pit” of parts and maintenance.

For improved wear resistance, chose a design to keep the linear fluid velocity less than seven feet per second, but realize that solids can fall out of suspension at velocities less than four feet per second.

You should reduce the pressure per stage if the fluid is abrasive. If the fluid is not abrasive you may elect to achieve 85 psi or more per stage, but as abrasiveness increases you should reduce the pressure per stage to as low as 20 psi. Most manufacturers limit the pressure per stage to under 90 psi with an elastomer stator. There are some exceptions at higher pressures. High viscous fluids with low abrasive properties and a rigid stator can be as high as 250 psi per stage.

A rigid stator is not made from elastomeric materials; it is metal and the fits are not interfering. Rigid stators are sometimes used where viscosities exceed 2000 cP and elastometer temperature limits are exceeded.

Consider Heat

Temperature has a direct effect on the resiliency of the stator elastomer, so the stator material should be matched for the temperature. Elastomers expand at a much faster rate than metals, usually as much as 10 times faster.

The elastomer stator will expand as fluid temperatures increase, but since the outside diameter is restricted by the heavy shell/metal casing the growth is essentially unidirectional inward. The pumping cavity becomes smaller and contacts (engages) the rotor even tighter. What was perhaps a zero or slight transition fit will now become a tight interference fit, sometimes to the point of destroying the stator. (You can smell the rubber burning at that point.)

Stators start thermal expansion in the 70–130 F degree range. It’s important to note they will shrink (contract) in the 50 F degree and below range, when double chromed rotors may increase the fit interference. If you know the range of the fluid temperatures, then you, in conjunction with the manufacturer, can customize your stator and rotor dimensions to yield the best performance and reliability. There will also be temperature multipliers in the design horsepower calculations. Note that some manufacturers offer a thin wall stator to mitigate the effects for this reason.

Consider the fluid properties in relation to the chemical resistance of the stator in your selection process.